What is Quantum Computing?
Quantum computing is a new paradigm of computing that is in its initial phase. Technophiles are thriving towards the computing methodology as it holds an enormous amount of capabilities compared to the present computing methodology. Quantum computing will be able to solve the most complex problems in a matter of minutes that today’s supercomputers take days to solve.
Quantum computing is based on the quantum theory of physics. According to the quantum theory, any particle can be present in all possible states until observed. The same concept is applied in computing.
In computing, any information is stored with the combination of 0s and 1s where 0 defines a false and 1 defines a true. In quantum computing as per the concept of superposition, instead of bits, the concept of quantum bits or qubits is observed where a qubit can either be in 0 or in 1 or in both at the same time.
Another concept of quantum computing is entanglement which highlights, that a pair of qubits can be in the same state even if they are at a far distance, and changing the state of one qubit will change the state of the other qubit as well.
Following the concept of qubits instead of bits has significantly increased the potential of computing. It not only increases the capability of qubits but also decreases the computation time substantially.
In the concept of superposition, 100 qubits can represent 2100 at a time while entanglement cuts down the computing time significantly and information sharing becomes much faster.
Technology experts around the globe are working on quantum computers and till now over 20 quantum computers have been built. Out of them, 3 types of quantum computers are known to be significant and have exceptional computing powers.
3 Essential Types of Quantum Computers
Quantum Annealer is the weakest quantum computing type which is almost equivalent to classical computers in everyday tasks like video creation or gaming but outperforms them to factor large numbers. These Quantum Annealer quantum computers are used for breaking encryptions and for solving optimization problems.
D-Wave introduced quantum annealing for general use but many advocates quantum annealing to follow the basic concepts of quantum computing.
Analog Quantum Computer
Although more challenging to build, this type of quantum computer has enormous potential for solving challenging problems in quantum chemistry, material science, quantum dynamics, sampling, and optimization. Current encryption standards can be strengthened by utilizing the Analog Quantum computer. The Analog Quantum Computer is the first type of computer to exponentially outperform current classical computers.
Universal Quantum Computer
Universal Quantum Computing is the most robust computing of all. It will be able to work on secure computing, machine learning, quantum dynamics, optimization issues, material science, and quantum chemistry. A universal quantum computer will be ab;e to decrypt data better and faster than any other type of quantum computer.
It will contain over 100,000 qubits and consume a tremendous amount of power to run. The Universal Quantum computer needs cryogenic cooling in addition to energy to keep its operating temperature at absolute zero (-4 Kelvin). IBM is working hard in this field as well, both in terms of hardware and software, and is now designing a chip for Universal Quantum Computing. It is believed that Google and Microsoft will also be making moves in this direction.
Quantum Computers vs Supercomputers
Quantum computers are exponentially better than supercomputers in computing capabilities. China claimed to have developed a quantum computer that performs computations 100 trillion times faster than any supercomputer. Clearly, quantum computers are significantly more powerful, faster and robust than supercomputers.
Quantum computing is maturing towards the capability of better and faster computing. The quantum computers created today are a glance of the potential of a Quantum computer that will be created with a complete potential of quantum theory and computation. The foundation for hardware and software requirements is being created by tech giants to contribute to quantum computing. Recently, Amazon AWS has launched a research center dedicated to quantum networking to address hardware and software complexities in quantum computing. Google is also working towards quantum to build robust solutions. Quantum can become a new normal in complex computing to provide faster solutions and has the potential to revolutionize the computing era entirely.
What are the three concepts are involved in the evolution of quantum computer?
Quantum computing is one of those topics that people find very interesting yet quite intimidating at the same time. When people hear — or read — that the core of quantum computing is quantum physics and quantum mechanics, they often get intimidated by the topic and steer away from it.
Will quantum computers replace classical computers?
The short answer is no. Classical computers have unique qualities that will be hard for quantum computers to attain. The ability to store data, for example, is unique to classical computers since the memory of quantum computers only lasts a few hundred microseconds at most.
What technology makes quantum computing?
Answer: In order to produce high-quality qubits, technologies like transman's, ion traps, and topological quantum computers are the main focus of efforts to construct a physical quantum computer.
What are the types of quantum computing?
There are several models of quantum computation with the most widely used being quantum circuits. Other models include the quantum Turing machine, quantum annealing, and adiabatic quantum computation. Most models are based on the quantum bit, or "qubit", which is somewhat analogous to the bit in classical computation.
How many quantum computers are there?
11 quantum computers There were 11 quantum computers in the world as of June 2018. These computers were owned by IBM, the University of Bristol in England, the Center for Quantum Computing and Communication Technology, the University of New South Wales in Australia, and the University of Science and Technology in China.